Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Populus euphratica
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
CCG001045.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG001231.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG002865.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG003176.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG003228.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG003733.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG004567.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG005105.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG007170.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG009040.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG009042.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG010596.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG012036.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG013136.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG015720.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG016120.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG016265.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG016335.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG016688.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG017598.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG017599.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG017928.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG018036.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG018613.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG018676.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG020183.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG020186.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG020196.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG020298.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG021313.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG021441.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG022071.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG022953.2M-type_MADS family protein
CCG022990.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG023057.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG025511.2M-type_MADS family protein
CCG025844.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG025965.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG027026.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG027621.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG029039.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG030363.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG030734.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG031247.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG031249.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG031539.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG031662.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG032454.1M-type_MADS family protein
CCG034246.1M-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513